PCI Express, officially called PCI-E or PCI-X, is a high speed serial computer peripheral bus standard, designed as an alternative to the aging PCI, AGP and PCI. This is because PCI Express was chosen over these previous bus types because of several factors, one of which is that it is actually faster than the aforementioned three. Furthermore, PCI Express also provides a significant amount of bandwidth per bit compared to AGP and PCI. PCI Express has also proven to be a stable and powerful competitor in the server sector, outperforming many popular server brands including Xen, Sun, Red Hat, Hewlett Packard, and others.
One of the main reasons why PCI Express has become so popular is that it has several advantages over the other two. For one thing, it can transfer speeds of up to 10GB/s, making it the industry standard for both server and client grade data applications. However, another advantage of using PCI Express is that it can use several types of peripheral components that are familiar from other forms of bus controllers. These include:
o Fastening and plugging of peripheral devices. Because of its pluggable nature, the interface doesn't need to be changed when replacing a device such as a printer with a newer more powerful model. This eliminates the need for costly and inconvenient PCI-E slot replacements. In addition, because of the significant amount of bandwidth that can be transferred, this saves money on network traffic.
o High-bandwidth in relation to bus. Compared to the previous two bus standards, PCI Express offers much higher bandwidth at low power consumption. As a result, it is used in server and application servers where huge amounts of data are transmitted in short distances without the need to switch between different bus speeds.
o High availability in the form of readily available and compatible peripheral devices. The implementation of a standard like pci express has significantly reduced the number of possible peripheral interface cards in a host. In comparison, PCI bus relies on several different types of cards, each with its own PCI Express version that is not interchangeable with any other.
o Compatibility. Another major advantage of using this standard is compatibility. Most consumers and enterprises that have become accustomed to using only standard PCs, and not the latest mobility based devices, don't need to learn new software or make extensive changes to their desktop operating system to use the newer technology. Even their existing machines run smoothly and effectively with only a simple installation of the necessary drivers and software. Compatibility means less risk of encountering a security or performance issue related to PCI Express and therefore less headache and expense as well. As long as the proper PCI Express drivers and software are installed on the computers being used, all forms of PCI Express based devices will be able to communicate with each other.
o Reduced motherboard size. Standard PCI Express cards can occupy up to eight PCI slots on the motherboard. Compared to ten such slots on modern motherboards which sometimes leaves enough space for several PCI Express cards, the installation of a single pci express card will free up a great deal of desk space where formerly there was none.
o Easy upgrade. There are actually two ways in which a PCI Express card can be upgraded. One is to replace existing hardware with newer ones which may not always be compatible with the newer bus versions of PCI Express cards, and the other is to use an expansion card slot to add on another slot onto the motherboard. Using an expansion card slot also means that users do not have to learn a whole new set of PCE standards just to be able to take advantage of the faster bus speeds offered by pci vs pci express.
Internal Data Rate :1700 MBps Internal Data Rate (Write) :1400 MBps 4KB Random Read :270000 IOPS 4KB Random Write :280000 IOPS SSD Endurance :300 TB
SSD VS.HDD The Advantages and ADVANTAGES OF SOLID-STATE DIVE
1. Higher Read-Write Rate than HDD
Speed is among the biggest advantages of solid state drives over hard drives. SSDs can be 25 to 100 times faster than hard disk drives. Be aware that an HDD needs extra time to read or write data as it moves its magnetic head on the spinning platter. This also causes a breakdown in the data arrangement. An SSD is more efficient than traditional hard drives because it lacks mechanical parts and is also more fragmented. This results in faster boot times and faster data transfers.
2. 2. Efficiency in Energy
An SSD consumes less power than an HDD. An HDD is composed of moving components. It requires power to run mechanical tasks and stay operational. SSDs are able to do this. Solid-state drives are energy efficient, which makes them ideal storage media for mobile devices that need high battery capacity and longer battery life.
3. HDD is more complicated than HDD
Solid-state drives can also last longer. Internal damage to the hardware and loss of data due to shudders and drops have been observed in hard disk drives because of their mechanical components. An SSD is less vulnerable to external impacts and falls, and is more resilient to shudders and shudders. This makes SSDs suitable for laptops and mobile devices.
4. Operation Sound-Free
The movement of the read-write head and the rotational movement of the disk plate's material can result in disturbing vibrations and sounds when the hard disk drive operating. This is particularly true when it is processing large quantities of data. Solid-state drives sound quiet since they don't have any mechanical parts or moving parts.
5. It is smaller than HDD
Small size is one of the advantages of a solid-state drive. A HDD is generally larger because of its magnetic head and a metallic disk that is enclosed in a case. An SSD, contrary, is comprised of smaller integrated circuits. The compactness of an SSD has made it suitable for ultraportable laptops as well as consumer electronic devices, such as smartphones and tablet computers.
SSD VS. HDD: THE LIMITATIONS AND DISADVANTAGES of SSD-STATE DRIVE
1. HDD is more expensive than HDD.
The price is among the biggest disadvantages and cons of a solid-state drive. In terms of dollar per gigabit, an SSD is more expensive than an HDD. Specifically the price of an SSD that has the same capacity of storage as an HDD can be two times as expensive. SSDs tend to be more expensive than computers and other devices. This is because SSDs are more expensive to produce.
2. Smaller Base Storage Capacity
The standard storage capacity of a hard disk drive is now at 500GB and manufacturers are pushing to standardize a higher capacity amounting to 1TB or more. Solid-state drives come with the capacity of 64GB and 128GB as their base capacity, respectively. This is a major disadvantage of SSDs. Be aware that this small capacity is why computers with entry-level SSDs have less storage space. SSDs can hold up to 4TB but they are rarer or cost more than HDDs.
3. HDD has lower storage capacity
HDD drives are simple to locate in computer or retail stores selling consumer electronics. There are a variety of HDD makers flooding the market. SSDs are difficult to come by and cost more than HDDs, especially the ones with larger storage capacities. SSDs are expensive to manufacture and unaffordable to retail sell due to their high manufacturing cost. But, SSDs are now more well-known than HDDs and the market is moving towards mobility.
4. The Concern Over PE Cycles
Another issue with a solid state hard drive is that it has restrictions on the number of data write-ups and rewrites which can be performed. A SSD cannot save all the data it can in a single block, as opposed to an HDD. But, flash memory has the capacity to write a limited number of times. The cheaper SSDs are able to store 3000-5500 read-rewrite or program erase cycles, whereas the higher-end and more expensive models can store 100,000 cycles of program erase. It is possible that data could be lost if the SSD's integrity reaches its limit.